- ADONAI, ADONAI, EL RAḤUM VE-ḤANNUN
- ADONAI, ADONAI, EL RAḤUM VE-ḤANNUN (Heb. יְהוָה, יְהוָה, אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן; "The Lord, The Lord, God, merciful and gracious"; Ex. 34:6–7), initial words of the Thirteen Attributes of God. Based upon a talmudic saying that God Himself revealed this formula to Moses as being effective for obtaining Divine Pardon (RH 17b), it is recited on the following occasions: (1) in the Seliḥot of the month of Elul, during the ten days of penitence , and on fast days including the Day of Atonement when it is preceded by the piyyutim "El Melekh Yoshev" or "El Erekh Appayim"; (2) before removing the Torah scrolls from the Ark on Rosh Ha-Shanah, the Day of Atonement, and the three Pilgrim festivals (Ashkenazi rite); (3) at the opening of the piyyut attributed to amittai (II) which is recited on the fifth day of Seliḥot, on the Day of Atonement, and on Mondays and Thursdays (Ashkenazi rite); (4) at the morning and afternoon prayers before Taḥanun (mostly Sephardi rite); (5) during prayers in an emergency situation, e.g., for a critically ill person. In the liturgical recital of the Thirteen Attributes the final words lo yenakkeh ("He does not remit all punishment"; Ex. 34:7) are omitted. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Ritus, 408; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 222; Davidson, Oẓar, 1 (1929), 31, no. 629.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.